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Biomass Gasifiers


What is Biomass Gasifier?

The Biomass Gasifier unit is essentially a chemical reactor, where thermo-chemical processes, such as, Drying of biomass fuel, Pyrolysis, Combustion and Reduction take place. Most of the biomass materials, such as, wood, charcoal, rice-husk, coconut shell, etc. can be easily converted into the gaseous fuel known as producer gas, which comprises of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. Such fuel gas has a good calorific value of 1000-1200 kcal/nm3, and it can directly be burnt with high efficiency and good degree of control without emitting any smoke. The producer gas flame temperature can be as high as 1100°C. Each kilogram of air-dry biomass with 10% moisture content yields about 2.5 nm3 of producer gas. In energy terms, the conversion efficiency of the gasification process is in the range of 80-90%.


What is Biomass Gasification?
The biomass gasification process basically converts almost all the forms of biomass or solid fuels, such as, agricultural residues, corn-wastes, rice-husks, woods, wood-wastes, etc. into a combustible gas mixture which is normally called producer gas. The producer gas is comprised of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. This process of conversion is typically used for various biomass materials, and it partially limits the combustion of such biomass during the process. The partial combustion occurs when the intake of air (oxygen) supply is controlled and its less than adequate quantity is fed into the system for the combustion of biomass. The Gasifier essentially acts as a reactor where various complex physical and chemical processes take place. Biomass gets dried, heated, pyrolysed, partially oxidized and reduced in this reactor during the process as it passes through the Gasifier, which ultimately yields the producer (inflammable) gas as a usable product.

There are four distinct processes take place in a gasifier
  • Drying of biomass fuel
  • Pyrolysis
  • Combustion
  • Reduction

Advantages or Process benefits
  • Reduced energy cost : Manglam Biomass Gasifier replaces expensive liquid/gaseous fuels like L.D.O./F.O./CNG/LPG/Diesel/CNG by low cost solid fuels without any changes in operations, temperature profile, temperature control and cleanliness in the plant area.
  • Typically the cost of replacing 1 ltr/kg of liquid/gaseous fuel works out to be Rs 15 to 20, depending on the application and type of fuel used for gasification
  • It offers clean combustion, compact burning equipment, high thermal efficiency and a good degree of control just like conventional diesel burner
  • Exceptional ease of control : The heat can be increased/ reduced by just adjusting a valve
  • Very low maintenance, No operative risk, easy to operate
  • Zero Tar/ Effluent system & highest overall efficiency
  • No emission of smoke from the Gasifier & does not harm the environment
  • Replace fossil fuels & reduce oil import
  • Auto ash removal system
  • Clean working environment, as the Gasifier system is situated away from the load
  • Worldwide environment friendly accepted renewable technology

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